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Photo Point


A camera is precious equipment which will give you good service for a long time, if you maintain it properly. Some basic guidelines are given and you are advised to follow them...

Cameras and lenses are extremely sensitive to moisture, dust and fungus in our atmosphere and it is very essential to maintain it properly...

Tripods are the best equipment available for a photographer to reduce or even completely eliminate camera shakes. There are many varieties available in market which may lead to confusion in buying the right one...

About Photography

Photograph helps the world to know about History. Due to scientific discoveries beginning from Greek and Roman culture, ancient drawings and pictures, and in the later period photography has developed. Hence we should know about its birth which in turn helps us to know many things...

Technical Tour

Cameras are now broadly classified into 2 categories

  • Film Camera or Single Lens Reflection Camera (SLR)
  • Digital Camera or Digital Single Lens Reflection Camera (DSLR)

Choosing the right lens is always essential before shooting any subject. There are lots of possibilities that the lens you are buying may not match with your camera...


Some of the frequently user terminologies


A strong high light provided to some areas in a photo to emphasize additional prominence.

Additive Colours:

A method to produce colours virtually by mixing light in various proportions with the primary colour such as Red, Green and Blue.

Auto Focus:

It is an automated system in which the focus is adjusted automatically.

Aerial Perspective:

The appearance of the subject is getting changed when the distance between subject and camera altered.


ASA stands for American Standard Association which is a standard used to measure the sensitivity of the film.


The circular openings with in a camera lens system that controls the brightness of the image striking the film. The size of the aperture opening are indicated the F numbers.

Auto Winder:

It is a unit attached to SLR camera for motorized single frame film. After each exposure the auto winder automatically advances the film to the next frame and locks the shutter.


It is a lens fault in which light rays are not focused properly thereby degrading the image. It includes chromatic and spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism and curvature of field.


Certain chemicals are added or mixed for quick developing is called accelerator. Examples are Sodium Carbonate, Sodium Hydroxide and Borax.

Automatic Exposure:

Some modern cameras, shutter and diaphragm are functioned with jointly or individually to get auto focus is called automatic exposure.


The lens aberration which fails to focus at the same time on horizontal line running through the centre of the lens.


The area available behind a photograph and is subordinate to the main subject or subjects in a picture.


The distribution of various elements in a picture which is harmonious as a whole.


It is a unit fits between the camera body and the lens. A bellow unit enables the lens to focus on the close subjects and given larger images of the subject. The magnification of the subjects depends on the focal length of the lens and the extension of the bellows.

Bromide Paper:

A printing paper which is printed by or coated by silver bromide which is used for black and white printing for its longer life.


A picture or photograph which is not clearly visible is known as blurring. This will happen while taking the photos if the camera is slightly shaken or in slow speed, this kind of effect occurs.


When lines are made on the photo prints by the Indian ink, the print will disappear so that the figures will appear as if it is drawn by the hand.

Back Lighting:

A light of the subject from behind where viewed from the camera portion.


The material on which light sensitive emulsion coated is known as Base.

Burning In:

A process in enlarging of given extra local exposure to parts of the image is known as Burring In.


Combining the various components of picture so as to give harmony to the completed work.


Opposing formation of different features in a picture, existing is light and shade or in linear formation.

Close-up Attachment:

Any attachment which enables the camera to focus at a close distance than its normal distance. Such attachment includes close-up lenses, bellows and extension tubes or rings.

Camera Case:

This prevents damage to the camera and helps to keep it clearly. A flap is provided to use the camera without removing from the case.

Cable Release:

It is a flexible cable which is attached to the shutter release for long exposure time to prevent the camera from moving during the exposure (to avoid camera shake).

CC Filter:

The expansion for CC filter is colour correction filter or colour compensation filters. This filters modifies the final overall colour of the photographs when they are shot.

Carbon Tetra Chloride:

It is an acid which is used for washing the negatives.

Combination Print:

The processing of printing more than one negative on a single printer paper.

Cleaning Liquid:

It is an acid which is used finally for washing the negatives or prints. It is also used for removing the other acid which is left out while developing in the beginning.

Cloth Line:

It is used for hanging films.

Colour Saturation:

The colour should be solid but it should not be melted is known as colour saturation.

Colour Temperatures:

The temperature at which a corresponding black body would emit a coloured light similar to the sources.


The features in a photograph which is contrast to the main motif and may be of less in value.

Depth of the field:

Depth of the field is the area of sharpness, in front of and behind the object in focus. It is approximately is the ratio 1:3 [one third in the front of and two thirds in the back of the point of focus]. Depth of field can be varied easily according to our convenience.

Differential Focusing:

The technique of using wide aperture to reduce the depth of field and therefore separated the focus on subject from its foreground and background.


Deutehe Industries Normen is a film speed system used by Germany and some other European countries.


It is the diameter of the lens aperture by given amount. A reduction in aperture is popularly known as 'Stopping Down'.

Double Exposure:

This is a process in which a single negative film on which the second exposure is made on depth.


The latest image is brought out and exposed in light along with a chemical solution for an appropriate duration is known as developing.

Dark Room:

A room which can be made completely dark with all the rooms, doors and windows are closed. The darkness must be completely made before developing the film because films are very much sensitive to light.


These are various size made of plastic enameled PVC used for developing, washing and fixing. Dishes should be bigger in size to handle several prints at a time.

Depth of Focus:

The range of the film lens movement which is possible before the image on the film becomes dull.


The first stage emulsion processing to make a latent image visible.


The process in enlarging of lens local exposure to parts of the image.

Electronic Flash:

It is a unit which produces a very bright flash of light which cost only a small sharper time (usually 1/500 to 1/400 seconds). The electronic flash tube will produce many thousands of flashes and it can be charged by variety of batteries.


It is a process which allows a light to act on a photo sensitive material. The amount of exposure depends on both the intensity of light and the time is allowed to act on the sensitive material.

Extension Ring or Tubes:

It is a space ring which fits between the camera body and the lens, allowing the camera to focus on subjects close-up than the nearest marked focusing of the distance.


An enlarger is used for enlarging a negative image for making prints in bigger size. The enlargers are of two types namely condenser enlarger and diffuser enlarger.

Electric Drier:

It is an instrument used for the purpose of drying and glazing the prints.

Flat Tint:

Pale uniform colour which is completely devoid of gradation.


The area in front of the principal figures or objects in a photograph.


Any material which is placed in front of the light source or lens absorbs some of the light coming through it. Filters are usually made of glass, plastic or gelatin paper and it is used in photography to change the colour of the light, reaching the paper.


It is a point where maximum coverage is made through the lens.

Focal Length:

The distance between the length and focal point is known as focal length.

Focal Point:

The point either side where light rays entering parallel to axis coverage.

Fast Film:

The film that is very sensitive to light that required only small exposure. These are ideal for photography in dim light condition in places where faster shutter speed is desired.


For taking photographs in poor lighting conditions flash unit is used. It is a unit having source of high intensity of light connected to the camera mechanism with a cord. The flash light goes off for short period when the shutter is released.

'F' Numbers:

These are internationally agreed numbers which are marked on lenses to indicate the brightness of the image of the film placed. The 'F' numbers series are F.1.4, F.2, F.2.8, F.4, F.5.6, F.8, F.11, F.16, F.22, and F.32 and so on.

Filter Factor:

When a colour filter is used during exposure, more time is required for exposure than without filter factor. This is written on the film by photography dealers and filter manufacturers.


A style of picture which portrays a scene or incident of ordinary life in its most natural form without pose or artifice.


The progressive blending of different tones or tints.


Two or more figures or objects arranged to complete a design or a pattern in a picture.


This is for glossy and shiny appearance in the prints. This can be done only for glossy paper prints. For glazing, metal glazing sheets are available.


The degrees of brightness in tone furred in a photograph which lie between the extreme Black & White or colour as representing the range of light intensity.


Proper arrangement or combination of pictorial elements to obtain pleasing effect.


A particular style of art which aims at depicting vividly the initial impression registered upon the observer's mind on viewing an object, without any to conventions of lighting and composition.


In theory it is a point that can never be reached, a measureless distance from the lens. In practical, a subject is set to be on infinity when going further away makes no difference to the focusing of the lens.

Inter Changeable Lens:

A lens which is detachable from the camera body and could be replaced by another lens.


The expansion is International Standard Organization. It is a number that indicates the film speed and aimed to replace the dial ASA and Din. Systems are now marked in ISO rating which are equivalent to ASA rating only.


A term used to indicate the tonal values of a photographic picture. A picture characterized by lighter tones or colour generally is said to have key, while one having darken tone or colour as having a low key.

Key Light:

Floods the screen or areas with shadow less light is called key light.

Lens Hood:

One of the most important and yet undervalued accessory is the lens hood which could be attached in the front of the lens either by using the fitter thread or some form of bayonet mount. The primary function of a lens hood is to improve the picture contrast by shielding the front element from stray light and to prevent glare caused by this stray light around the lens.

Low Light:

Shooting pictures in poor light which needs an exposure lesser than 1/30 second, is called Low Light Photography.

Long Focus Lens:

Any lens which can focus on greater length.

Low Key:

This is described as any image which consists mainly of dark tone with occasional meddles and light chromes.

Leaf Shutter:

These are used in many roll film cameras.


Material employed in creating an artistic work.


The dominant idea upon which the photograph is based.

Macro Lens:

A lens which can closely focus any objects without any close-up devices such as extension tubes or rings.

Micro Photography:

The branch of photography deals with producing very small images such as production of microchips.

Mirror Lens:

Any lens which corporate mirrors instead of conventional glass or plastic lens elements. This type of lens designed and employed mainly for long focal length lenses.


In contact printing a mask is used in between the negative and the contact paper to produces white border in the print. This mask is nothing but the black paper with a neatly cut opening of the same is slightly smaller areas than the picture.

Normal Lens:

It is otherwise called standard lens. When you purchase a camera any lens permanently fixed to the camera body for the camera is known as normal lens.

Neutral Density Filter:

The filter placed in front of the camera which reduces the amount of light reaching the film without altering the light is called as neutral density filters.

Over Exposure:

Over exposure is exposing the film or paper beyond the normal or correct exposure which occurs because of lack of light which in turn reduces the image quality.

Open Flash:

It is a type of a flash without any contact with camera body and could be used number of times to capture a picture.


The comparative relationship between different parts available in a picture.

Plate Camera:

It is a type of camera used in studios.

Penta Prism:

It is an optical device used in most 35mm SLR cameras. It is a prism consists of 5 mirrors which redirect the image from left to right and top to bottom.

Photo Flood:

It is a higher voltage bulb which gives bright light having the colour temperature.

Photo Micrography:

It is a close photography with the range of '0' to '1' and also called photographer through a microscope.

Polorising Filter:

It is a special type of expensive filter which is used for avoiding unwanted reflections that is from a polished and bright surfaces like glass, metal, polished wood and water etc. It is also used for indoor and outdoor photography.

Pin Hole Camera:

It is a type of camera. Light for various parts of the subjects are passed through the pin hole in an opaque screen.

Panchromatic Film:

It is a type of film which is sensitive to all the colours and should be developed in total darkness

Portrait Photography:

This is a special field in photography with a simple lighting arrangement.


It is a transparent subject sharpened so as to refract light is called prism.

Red Eye:

A red glow in the eyes of people or animals caused by flash illumination, reflecting the blood-rich retina of the eye.


Arrangement of colour and line which gives prominence to a subject against the surroundings of lighter texture.


Harmonious correction of various feature designed to give a pleasing effect.


Any surface which is used to reflect light towards the subjects and especially in the shadow areas.

Rim Light:

A light place behind the subject to give a pencil of light around the subejct is the rim light.

Range Finder:

Arrangement of mirror lens and prism to measure distance on direct view finder camera for accurate focusing.


This is a solution that can be added to the used developer solution in a given proportions there by the used up chemicals are substituted and the developer is made reusable.


A subject in the foreground with no details or no light on it, photographed against bright light or background.


It means purity of colour. The purest colours are spectrum colours.

Safe Light:

A 15 watts reddish orange opaque bulb, which is mainly used in dark room.


This is a device which controls the duration of exposure. There are 2 kinds of shutters namely leaf shutter and focal plane shutter.

SLR Camera:

Single Lens Reflector camera views the subject through the lens via a mirror.

Sky Light Filter:

In daylight on overcast in open shade at high altitudes, there is a high proportion of ultra violet and blue light. So when pictures were captured the outcome might be with all bluish cast. Ultra violet or sky light filters which is slightly pink or neutral in appearance will restore the colour balance in such situations.

Slave Unit:

Slave unit is a small photo electric cell, mounted on the cordless additional flash unit kept in a usable position away from the camera. This flash with the slave unit is used in addition to the main unit mounted on the camera where the main flash fires. This light triggers the additional flash through the photo cell in the slave unit.

Soft Focal Lens:

A lens designed to give slightly sharp images. This type of lens was used primarily for Portrait and the results may not be as same conventional lens.

Sodium Carbonate:

It is in powder form with white irregular crystals. This is a weak alkali soluble, which makes the developing agents more and more active and hence called as accelerator.

Sodium Sulphate:

This is a white crystal water soluble substance used as a preservative.


When you are using flash unit, the flash light comes on and goes off for a very short period when the shutter is released. It is important that the firing of flash and the opening of the shutter happens at the same instance so that the subject is captured properly when the shutter opens and closes. This is called 'Flash Synchronization'.

Telephoto Lens:

Telephoto Lenses with focal length of 200mm or longer are bulky besides being slower in speed due to large aperture like f4 or f5.6 consequently, depth of field is shallow.


The representation of surface in a picture.


Effect of light and shade produced in a photograph in the form of varying range.


Industrial style produced by hand.

Tele Converter:

An optical device placed between the camera body and lens to increase the magnification of the image.


Three legged camera support is known as tripod.

Test Bit:

To avoid wastage of costly printing paper you should expose the given paper properly. Also you should select the grade of the paper correctly to suit the negative. This can be done by first taking the test print. The test print can be done only by a small bit of print paper placed over the negative. This is called test bit.


It is a control system which modern flash gun is having. It saves energy consumption and also automatically adjusts the output for special range of distance.


The visual impact of an image can be increased by a chemical process called toning. By chemical treatment the black and white image is replaced by coloured image.


This type of film directly produces colour slides positive figure in the film that can be looked through a viewer on to a screen using a slide projector.

Trick Shot:

This is an interesting photography. There are optical tricks, mechanical tricks given to the establishment process and special effects corrected this is known as trick shot.

Ultra Violet Filter:

Ultra Violet rays are not visible to our eyes but affect both colour and black & white film. Open seashore, sunrises, landscapes high altitude areas extensively reflect UV rays present in daylight, thereby reducing the quality of the images formed on the film resulting in poor contrast, haziness and excessive blue. The UV filter absorbs this radiation, improving the over all image quality and colour saturations.

Under Exposure:

In sufficient exposure of film or paper which reduces the contrast and density of the image.

View Finder:

A simple optical device usually indicates the edges of the image being formed on the film.

View Point:

A position from which the subject is viewed.


This is an important step or otherwise the print will develop strains as days passes on. The print should be thoroughly washed.

Wide Angle Lens:

A short focal length lens which records a wide angle of view.

Zoom Lens:

It is a type of lens through which the focal length could be altered which images are captured.

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